Abstract: since the inception of Fuzhou nearly ten years of silence time, until in 1853 the first batch of tea shipped from the beginning, its potential is like a volcano burst out, become a world tea trade port jumped in just ten years. However, with the increasing international competition, good times don’t last long, and reduce the demand for Chinese tea in the western countries, as in quickly decline, but never revive. From mid nineteenth Century to early twentieth Century a few, they experienced from rise to decline changes, this change radically worth pondering and aftertaste.
Zheng He’s figure
Tea has a long history in China, had become an indispensable part of Chinese in social life, is one of the important elements of Chinese culture. After the beginning of foreign trade since the Ming Dynasty, China tea on the development trend also had a profound impact, such as the American War of independence, opium etc. and are closely linked, the importance of this remarkable. Before twentieth Century, as one of the most Chinese main export commodities, the tea market is related to the rise and fall of the event for some beneficial to the people’s livelihood, especially the coastal provinces and cities, the situation is more serious, such as the rise and decline of the port, it can be said that the “into tea, tea is also lost”. Therefore, from the history of Chinese tea is easy, it is not difficult to find some characteristics of modern society China. This article is based on the port, from prosperity to the small path attenuation change, through Chinese modernization twists and turns this big.
First, the background of the rise of Fuzhou
China is the hometown of tea, tea, porcelain and silk like “four great inventions”, is to make the immortal contribution of national civilization. It can be said that in a modern history is equivalent to a Chinese history of foreign relations. It is because of the tea in the civilization process, in such a special position, so the study of tea history also became very attention in academic field, and the study area of tea city is just unfolding. This paper is based on previous research, the modern tea city do not mature discussion. Make a special study of tea city: Lin Liqiang “tea evangelist — nineteenth Century missionaries Lu Gongming abandoned teaching business case study,”  “and”  nineteenth Century western missionaries; Cheng Zhenfang “rise” opium and tea in Hong Kong;  “constitutional system changes and China ginger tea on the modern easy — Hong Kong case based on the investigation of”  (although there are many articles related to tea, but not for specialized research, made so here is not quoted). The above research are discussed in the face of tea change from different layers, so this paper on the basis of their giving, tentative analysis of the whole process from prosperity to decline.
As everyone knows, the nation in the long run, the tea poured a lot of hard work and feelings, gradually create the unique Oriental tea. At the same time, in the period of agricultural civilization, tea production and trade has become one of the pillar industries Chinese economy. Especially in the Ming and Qing Dynasties two generations, along with the commodity economy, budding capitalist relations of production have brought unprecedented prosperity. During this period, due to the rise of the opening of new routes and the capital market for Chinese tea export, further to provide a wider space, which stimulates the domestic tea production scale, Wuyi Mountains, Yunnan, Pu’er tea in the south of Anhui province gradually as the franchise area. On the basis of stability and transport routes gradually formed, some in the network center of the city and region, such as Guangzhou, estuary town status has become increasingly prominent. Until the mid nineteenth Century, the city or region has played an important role in regional trade, the regional economic society plays an irreplaceable role.
Lin Zexu Humen Beach
However, in 1840 the outbreak of the Opium Chinese defeat, was forced to open five ports, China market open at the same time, foreign capital will stampede in. So the old trading system was broken by , the new trade system gradually formed . Some of the previous as a transit station of the city and area have been seriously affected, declining status. While the new trade center is rising rapidly, the rise of the port city, it is thanks to Wuyishan Black Tea entrepot trade. After Opium, imperialist aggression in strengthening at the same time, the China gradually into the capitalist market system, their side dumping goods into Chinese, side stepping Chinese plunder resources. Because at that time the Chinese tea is especially favored by foreigners, so as to become one of the behoove of bulk goods. At the beginning of opening, the huge market potential is still not fully, once the time is ripe this potential will instantly burst out. It is in this context, it has become a trade network in a bright meteor. It is called a “meteor”, because it is pure belong to the outbreak of the famous city apartment layout: almost overnight, and quickly in a short period of annihilation, and malaise withering no revival.
The rise and decline of the two, Fuzhou tea trade
The prosperity of the port of Fuzhou after the opening of five ports
In July 1844 before the official opening, is one of the five ports in the opening of the latest. Because of the approaching Black Tea region of Wuyishan, the West had to drool with envy in silence, waiting for the same time, finally in 1853 to the first batch of tea output, then its momentum is a can not be closed, the amount soared. From 1854 until 80s, the amount of foreign high. In 1854, according to customs statistics, 130 thousand meter 6 million 500 thousand kilograms of tea bear (actually more), 55 ships (including the 37, 14 US) for transport, this year in June, Guangyang line has increased by 7; in 1855 this year, the Guangzhou trade is almost at a standstill, the volume of tea to 270 thousand at 13 million 500 thousand kg. The ship up to 132 ships, load of 51674 tons; in 1856 the amount was increased to 40972600 pounds (about 18 million 600 thousand kg), foreign 148 cargo ships; and in the same year Guangzhou and Shanghai tea amounted to 21359865 pounds (about 9 million 700 thousand kg) and 36919064 lb (16 million 750 thousand kg). The tea season in July 1859 listed, from Guangzhou to the United States the amount of tea was 3558424 pounds (about 1 million 610 thousand kg), away from Xiamen, 5265100 pounds (about 2 million 400 thousand kg), Shanghai 6893900 pounds (about 3 million 130 thousand kg), and from out of 11293600 pounds (about 5 million 123 thousand kg); over the same period to the British tea, Guangzhou (about 41586000 pounds 19 million kg), Shanghai 12331000 pounds (about 5 million 600 thousand kg), 36085000 pounds (about 13 million 600 thousand kg). In other words, in just five or six years, tea production has reached the sum of Guangzhou and Shanghai 2/3. In 1863, the year 1864, as of May 31st, the volume of tea are: 43500000 British pounds (about 20 million kg), Australia 8300000 pounds (about 3 million 750 thousand kg), the United States 7000000 pounds (about 3 million 180 thousand), three total number reached 58800000 pounds (about 27 million kg). 
According to statistics, in 1873 1871, Chinese average annual value of 110 million yuan, of which the tea value of 57 million 970 thousand yuan, accounting for 52.7%. The port output has accounted for the national tea tea value of 35% to 44%, that is to say, only tea a, accounting for about 20% of gross.  these figures show that in a very short time, has been rising rapidly for the Chinese Black Tea largest trade port, its importance is self-evident. By 1880 the trade reached the most glorious period, amount to 801110 Dan (about 40 million kg), 2 million 650 thousand pounds (about 40 million yuan). At this point, “has become the largest tea port and Chinese.” 
Fuzhou’s Russian brick factory site map | old buildings of Fuzhou
While this trade entered its heyday, the city and the city of tea tea but hidden deep crisis, its performance for:
1, because Black Tea sold, Black Tea production in the promotion, prices, due to competition
The Qing Dynasty Wuyi tea market is the United Kingdom, Wuyishan star village produced Kung Fu tea and small tea in Europe especially welcomed by the british. But Black Tea made simple, quickly in the southern provinces Chinese popularization, the overall quality of Anhui Keemun Black Tea gradually over Fujian Black Tea; in the market, by the British capital control in India, Ceylon tea growing, the tea leaves thick taste thick, especially with the British tastes, British India, Ceylon Black Tea have gradually changed. So Fujian has gradually lost the British Black Tea this important market.
2, the British and American merchants manipulation, they intend to produce a surplus situation, the Fujian tea prices plunged.
Chinese tea merchants in Guangzhou city’s control, prices rose very quickly; but after the tea market to American businessmen, the famous flag, Chang The early bird catches, etc. in the opening line of Jardine matheson. With their strong capital gradually control tea city, Chinese to commander, sigh nonetheless. In order to obtain high profits, every spring, they have raised the price of tea merchants to attract selling tea; and when a large number of listed around the tea, they kill the ruthless price of tea, tea merchants sell Chinese force, resulting in the loss of tea. After 1880s, the merchants of successive losses, everyone to trade off Black Tea.
3, the official tea tax, farmers, merchants are pretty big blow.
The Qing Dynasty 13 years of tea tax bill
Since the Wuyi tea trade since the Qing government want tea, continue to add to the tax bureau, add to pumping PCIe card sign, port transportation channel, Wuyi tea to go through, set up to almost all the taxes, such as water, Songxi, Sandu, have specialized collection of tea tax authorities; more and more tax merchants pay a tax to take tea, an average of 424 money, this is a heavy burden for the tea industry of Fujian. In the tea tax rising at the same time, tea prices are falling in 1898 on the market price of tea was Shisanliangwu money, than the peak period of tea prices plunged 2/3. This is a reversal of the changes to the tea farmers and tea merchants difficult to break point. 
In addition, opening up new routes (the opening of the Suez canal in 1869), shipping and telecommunications industry, although has contributed to Chinese tea exported country, but eventually became one of the important factors to weaken the dominant market. For example, in the Suez canal before the British transport of Chinese tea must pass through Cape of Good Hope, generally about 120 days sailing to travel; is rescur tea clipper ship also takes 90 days. So when the Chinese tea shipped to London, will become popular; and the opening of new routes to change all that, it shortens the distance between production and marketing, accelerate the new tea market, reducing transport costs, make originally expensive Wuyi Black Tea price fall.
If the ocean shipping industry, and greatly reduce the freight cost, shorten the freight, and the rise of the telecommunications industry has completely changed the western trade mode of operation. In 1840s, the West has been erected on land master wire technology, 50s will be the laying of submarine cables. 1866 between Britain and the United States successfully set up across the Atlantic submarine cable. Soon, the 70s European China submarine cable laying is successful. From Europe to Chinese information transmission by wire transfer to the past, ten days and months, so in a few hours can arrive. The laying of submarine cables, completely changed the old situation of information transmission. For example, the British businessmen, don’t need to understand the thousands of miles through the ferry sailing overseas message, he only needs to send a overseas telegram, will solve all problems. Because the telecommunication tool in the hands of foreigners, and China traders on the market this initiative is absolutely ignorant of, in the hands of the hands of foreign. The foreign trade complete control of the situation, which makes the market only according to their standard of heteronomy. 
Finally, a single commodity city, its growth is so easy to rely on Wuyi tea. But in addition to tea, almost no other trade. Therefore, on the other hand, the single type and restricting trade, such as trade in the peak in 1859, the value reached 11 million yuan, and all of its imports of less than 2 million yuan, that is to say foreign goods in the market, the market is not optimistic. This rise in the period, due to high profits of foreign or can be tolerated; once the competition profit decreases, even unprofitable, foreign will certainly lose interest in looking at him, turn to the tea market. So, in 1880s, due to the combined effect of the above factors, the tea output is the decline, with the fate of Chinese tea as soon replaced by India, Ceylon. From Fujian Black Tea domination will cease to exist after 1890 every year, hundreds of thousands. Since then, the tea city still continue to keep going by painstaking effort, but have never returned to their former glory.
Three, the rise and decline of Fuzhou tea market
As we all know, so the earliest became one of the five ports, because it is richly endowed by nature geographical location, close to Wuyishan tea area. In the treaty before the Fujian tea to arrive in Guangzhou by road sung from the export, usually takes one or two months, not only the distant journey, and signs of danger appearing everywhere after 1853, Wuyi tea; by the beginning of Minjiang to foreign sales, trip up just 8 to 10 days. This distance is shortened, the transportation cost is greatly reduced. So foreign businessmen gathered, so every year all fall over each other to come here from the panic buying tea, the port competitiveness has been strengthened.  showed that the rise of the phenomenon:
1, Fuzhou increase the international influence
Because of the rapid increase, the force is also growing. In nineteenth Century five or six, Britain, France and the United States and other powers has set up a consulate here. In 1854 the United States government appointed flag Chang boss in the consular agent post; the same year the British Consul in the deputy and are promoted to the consular level. Then, France, Holland, Portugal, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Germany and other countries have successively in the presence of consul, in order to protect its economic interests in Rongcheng. In order to  monopoly in July 1861 on the huge taxes, easy, British official in the customs office, located off Linjiang pan Chuan Pu, in order to achieve a few of the jurisdiction of maritime trade.
Fuzhou pan Chuan Pu Catholic Church
At the same time, the huge commercial interests also attract a lot of foreign speculators, they have come here for economic opportunities. Only in 1854, the Hong Kong foreign banks increased 7. The two sides of Minjiang built many foreign firms or companies, they are for large companies, the ocean and the General Administration of customs and the post office in the local branch. There is a path from these buildings extends to Nantai street, known as the “Piccadilly Street” (London on a busy street), both sides is full of China shops, here was very noisy and lively. Once across the street, came to a beautiful place with small parks and European style building. There is a boss of the house, foreign Commissioner of customs house, and beautiful consular residence. In addition, they lower officials and businessmen and missionaries more also mostly live there, their house is relatively simple in style, elegant; various clubs, churches and a small British cemetery built here. Both ends of a street has a different style, which formed a sharp contrast. 
2, expand the tea trade to promote the development of international shipping industry
Along with the unceasing expansion, the sea shipping competition, the shipping industry has been rapid, kiloton ships came into being, like the original “sea giant” and “tea” such a huge and bulky East Indiaman, quickly out of sight, the clipper was replaced by smooth and supple. The clipper design is streamlined, more sails in the wind, at speeds up to 18 miles; in maritime history, it was faster than the newly invented steamer. Specifically, the first ship clipper is built for trade. At the beginning of 1866, between the fast sailing “famous antelope” and “ladder flat” were one of the most spectacular game, “antelope” to start, but the “ladder flat” over it and the early arrival of the London docks. The voyage lasted 99 days, when they landed only 10 miles, is 10 minutes distance. From Minjiang to London in 15 thousand miles, two cargo vessels this gap really makes people can not imagine. At least half of the original general ship sailing on the water, now to just three months, the improvement of navigation technology for tea competition caused by the visible, the speed is incredible. 
In December 1868, Henry artist James Butt drawing watercolor, entitled “Star Tower, Fuzhou (tea producing area)” (source: British Royal Greenwich Museum) | reproduced in the old buildings of Fuzhou
The port after another in 50s also appeared buoys and lights. In Minjiang port, here before accidents, many merchant shipping marks and not because there is no such distress sank, such as the United States “Vostok” tons of clipper transports have been here to overturn. Since these facilities, the risk of sailing is greatly reduced.
3, the commercial center of the outward transfer
One of the distinctive features of modern China city is the commercial break through the wall and overflow, is no exception, when the rise of the commercial center of the city after the transfer to the outside. The two sides of Minjiang shops, Nantai region has become the trading place of tea; because there are about 15 nautical miles from Fujian and Minjiang River Estuary, and shallow, large cargo to upstream reach cargo can only be parked in the southern Taiwan, Mawei Port waiting in the small barge transporting the goods to the goods, such a trade function actually extends to Mawei port.  can be said to Nantai area and has become the commercial center of Hong kong.
4, the development of modern education and the dissemination of Western Learning
The remarkable achievement is that since the inception of the old mode of education is to break its culture and education, the coexistence of a variety of educational forms pattern began to appear, all kinds of educational thoughts have spread. So, business is booming.
The establishment of the first church schools to create a new situation in education. The founder of the Church Missionary in the school a little later than Xiamen, but in just a few years after the opening, that is, the United States issued Methodist Episcopal Church and the British sent to start school activities, set up successively in the large scale of school: Office issued “Gezhi academy”, Methodist office “crane age the Anglo Chinese College”, the episcopal office 31 College “etc.. At the same time, Methodist and the Department will do a woman school, one for the “Yu Ying female college”, the beginning of a “too female Mao Sook, a” Paul Fukuyama female college “, later renamed the” female school in Wenshan”. The various schools have been out at the increasing number of students, teachers, teaching equipment have also been strengthened.  no matter the church school was founded in mind is what, but it objectively promoted the development of modern education and, as the introduction of the bridge, this is because: first, it promoted the development of modern schools at all levels; two, the opening of new curriculum, expand the education content; three, creating a precedent for women’s education four, the introduction of modern school education; mode, which provides a successful example for the establishment of modern education system.
As the tea city flourished drives the economy, which laid a solid foundation for the establishment of various schools and various undertakings, this is also reflected in the rise of the book on the newspaper. Fujian’s first modern newspaper “poor government newspaper” was founded in October 1858, since then there have been “advertising”, “daily echo”, “Czech”, and Japanese founded the “Fujian newspaper” etc.. These newspaper readers are foreigners, but to teach students, overseas Chinese are studied, in which large businesses advertise. After the Chinese newspaper in 1894, until the beginning of twentieth Century there were seven such newspapers, namely “Fujian Daily News” “Fujian daily”, “Fujian news”, “news” suggestions, “Fujian Communique” and “commercial bulletin” and so on. These newspapers or publicity or advocate for innovation and progress, people open vision, to enlighten the people and the dissemination of information plays a role can not be ignored, so they are on the modern society can not be underestimated, 
In addition the dockyard was founded, has also made a very fruitful contribution to the spread of Western learning, cultivating new intellectuals. The dockyard was founded in 1866, in early twentieth Century on the decline, and the decline was from prosperity to greatcoincidence. In fact, this is not accidental, because the dockyard funding comes from a considerable part of Fujian tea customs tax.  when the tea market downturn, it will naturally be. Can be said that the dockyard contribution is not made it how many ships, but in training talents and the dissemination of western advanced thoughts and technology. In the construction of the shipyard, shipyard to start shipping school recruit students, and hired the British and French Western knowledge for teachers; school in addition to a foreign language, mathematics, physics, chemistry, painting, specialized design, including shipbuilding, driving, turbine, garden art and other knowledge. In addition to domestic training school, further to foreign public school students, including Yan Fu, Wei Han, et al. Chuanzheng produced the first batch of Chinese shipbuilding, navigation and other related personnel, to a positive effect on Chinese modern military and diplomatic, translation, education, to promote modern society, promote cultural communication and dissemination of modern ideas are profound. 
Prolific translator of Western works into classical Chinese
The rise of tea changed the original situation, there is some new social occupation, such as specialized in tea trade, tea division occupation brokers; along with the trade, oceans, banks, the banks have to stay in Rongcheng, the new financial system established here; all other and increase social mobility…… In short, when reaching the peak, has become a powerful city in southeast coastal Chinese.
Photo taken in Fuzhou in 1890, leaving China teahouse early absorption of Western management way and hair change mark. For example, the evaluation of tea, tea on the all glass bottles are numbered, people can smell aroma, on brown, pick out the right according to the number of tea, tea. China has a long history of tea culture, has great vitality, and conform to the Chinese and foreign exchange, naturally into the life of the way the world is inseparable.
However, to the end of nineteenth Century, with the shrinking of Fujian tea, although the Mawei Port still showing a busy scene, but the entire port business financial activities is much worse than before, for example, from 1882 to 1884, the need to import four million yuan amount of gold and silver for commercial activity each year; the next two years is to reach seven million yuan a year. In 1890 and 1891, but suddenly dropped to a mere one million and six hundred thousand yuan.  during this period, some banks withdraw from the original 7 reduced to 4, finally left two; when busy wharf silted up, perennial no cleaning;  used in many related tea occupation have changed the line……  all showed the brilliant past, the glorious period of a witness who can only look, glory days once in memory. Thus, the whole city how deeply. It is because of the decline of tea city, the city status was greatly weakened, at the beginning of twentieth Century became almost unknown to the public.
“Anyway, can only be regarded as a single commodity port, it will break the dream of prosperity. With the change of it so amazing achievements in the return to the original condition.” Expand the  power comes from the resurgence, the reason for the recession to shrink, so the quality of tea has almost become a decisive factor in the success of the city. This is caused by the change of a single commodity trade port city of ups and downs, is also rare in China; and from 1853 to early twentieth Century, in just a few rooms so much will change radically, this phenomenon itself is a matter worthy of reflection and recollection.
The rise and fall of that, in the condition of semi feudal and semi colonial, national economic growth is very weak, the lack of guarantee system stability, it is easy to form a single form of goods; and the single commodity form is easy to imperialist colonial economy in the inevitable result of his country. Just to build a bridge in the capital, when it once lost, a withdrawal of foreign capital it will naturally collapse down. In mid nineteenth Century the economy up, itself is a kind of abnormal expansion process, because it is not based on strong national industries on the single; expect foreign capital support is unreliable, so its decline is also reasonable.
The rise and fall of Enlightenment: one is that a city must give full play to their advantages in resources, but not only entirely dependent on the resources; two, there is no stable backing, a city no matter how it is difficult to maintain lasting. From the Chinese society itself, the traditional inertia is not a short duration of time will be able to completely change, it needs a process, and this process is imperialism patience, so they should change with gunboats to force, as a result we have to know is to become a long-term Chinese into a semi colonial and semi feudal society. Transition is painful, it is painful, and it is this transformation a wave of wave waves.
: “with strong tea evangelist — nineteenth Century missionaries Lu Gongming abandoned teaching business case study”, “Journal of Fujian Normal University” in 2005 fifth.
 Lin: “Western missionaries and nineteenth Century”, “religious research” in 2005 fourth.
 Cheng Zhenfang: “the rise of” Opium tea in Hong Kong, “Fujian Forum (SOCIAL SCIENCE EDITION)” in 1985 fifth.
 Jiang Xiuxian: “institutional change and modern tea China case on the port inspection”, “Chinese 2008 study” social economic history second.
Guangzhou  trading system, refers to the opium trade before the Guangzhou trade system. See [US] Fei Zhengqing: “Chinese, tradition and change” (John king, Fairbank, China, tradition andTransformation) Zhang Pei Beijing: Knowledge Press 2002 edition.
 is formed after the opium trade treaty system, see Fei Zhengqing, “China, tradition and change”.
Gongming  [US]: “Lu Chinese society” (Justus Doolittle, Social Life of Chinese) Chen Zeping: Fujian people’s publishing house, 2009 first edition.
 Lin Qingyuan: “Fujian modern economic history”: Fujian people’s publishing house, 2001 first edition.
  and Peter Stess Berg: “witness China 100 years: a family of Chinese feelings” Li Wei. Beijing: National Press, October 2006, page fourth.
 see Lin Qingyuan: “Fujian modern economic history”
: Yan Zhongping “1840-1894” Chinese modern economic history of Beijing: economic management press 2007 edition.
 Xu Xiaowang: “the general history of Fujian Vol. fifth”: Fujian people’s Publishing House in 2006 first edition.
 Lin: “the study on the western missionaries and religion 2005 fourth nineteenth Century.
 [see] and Peter Stess Berg: “witness China hundred years: a foreign China feeling” Li Weiyi of Beijing: National Publishing House in October 2006.
 [see] and Peter Stess Berg: “witness Chinese: one hundred years
Peter Stess Berg:  and “witness China 100 years: a
Chen Zhiping  Li Shaoming: “Christianity and the Fujian civil society” Xiamen: Xiamen University press 1992 edition.
 Xu Xiaowang: “the general history of Fujian Vol. fifth”
 Xu Xiaowang: “the general history of Fujian Vol. fifth”
 Xu Xiaowang: “the general history of Fujian Vol. fifth”
 Fujian provincial CPPCC Committee on cultural and historical data editor: “Fujian tenth” historical data series: Fujian people’s Publishing House in 1985.
 Fujian provincial CPPCC Committee on cultural and historical data editor: “Fujian tenth” series of historical data
  and Peter Stess Berg: “witness Chinese: one hundred years
: Yan Zhongping “1840-1894” Chinese modern economic history of Beijing: economic management press, 2007 edition, page 262nd.
Author: Li Qing
Source: publication of “Journal of Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, 2010, 31 (4): 36-40
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